This lecture has been delivered by Dr. Abdel Rahman El Gamal during August 2016 as a contribution to the “Fish Culture Development training course – Africa” which is annually organized by the Egyptian International Centre for Agriculture (EICA) with the support by Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA). The lecture started with the features of rural community focusing more on aquaculture including criteria of fish candidates which may suit the rural communities. The part on the promotion of small-scale aquaculture began with the adoption curve and the importance of initial success and requirements especially of extension service. The subsidy issue has been addressed along with case studies along with the conflicting opinions. The advantage of participatory approach in the planning has been applied. The lecture also addressed the obstacles facing the development of small-scale aquaculture such as the credit. Examples of small-scale aquaculture, integrated systems and case studies from various parts of the world have been included in the lecture.