This introductory lecture was delivered in the opening of the “Aquaculture training workshop” which was conducted during the period 17 to 21 September in Kilimanjaro (Tanzania) and organized by Kilimanjaro Agricultural Training Center (KATC). I tried in this lecture to bring in the information on fishery/aquaculture sector in Tanzania but also to highlight other related sectors such as particular agricultural crops which could be used in fish feed. In order to emphasize the rationality of aquaculture development in Tanzania, the key human nutrition parameters have been addressed such as the daily per capita protein intake and identifying all sources for such intake. The lecture ended by the challenges facing the development of aquaculture in Tanzania. A brief introduction on world and African aquaculture was included in the first part of the lecture. As planned, this lecture served as a platform for subsequent components of this training workshop.