Promoting aquaculture in the Philippines through free delivery of fish fingerlings

Photos’ credit: Marx Perfecto C. Garcia (Philippines) – Description: Marx Perfecto C. Garcia and Abdel Rahman El Gamal (Founder of the website)

The arrangement of such aquaculture support is managed by the local government units (LGUs) and the Provident Fund Offices (PFOs). Fish fingerlings shown in one photo are either delivered or picked up in the or by the respective provinces or municipalities.

The second photo shows packs of fingerlings that were picked up by one of the municipalities in the Cordillera Administrative Region (CAR) to be dispersed to their constituent fisherfolk beneficiaries. The Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources (BFAR) in cooperation with CAR provide fingerlings at no cost as input assistance to improve the fisheries production in the region as well as provide fish sufficiency and alternative livelihood to the aquaculture operators.


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Use of decapsulated Artemia for direct feeding to African catfish in Kenya – Video

This video was filmed in a Kenyan fish farm where different aquaculture activities on several species are taking place including tilapia, catfish, and ornamental fish. This video shows the feeding during the larval nursing of African catfish, Clarias gariepinus. As shown, the food provided is decapsulated artemia cysts.

The nutritional value of the decapsulated artemia cysts has been documented through research and applications upon the nursing of several fish species including African catfish. For that reason, the use of decapsulated Artemia cysts is considered a good alternative to artemia nauplii and hence it has been widely used for the larval rearing of several species including African catfish especially under intensive culture conditions. The decapsulated cysts are completely digestible by the fish or shrimp larvae.

The decapsulation procedure is carried out by chemically removing or oxidizing the outer chorion of the cyst using hypochloride solution. The cysts used in direct feeding are produced through specific processes that do not consider hatching process. It is believed that the decapsulated cysts have a higher energy and nutritional value compared to live Artemia nauplii having in consideration that zero energy is consumed in the hatching process. Similarly, lipids, amino acids, and enzymes are left intact. The nutritional merit of the dried artemia cysts can be enhanced through its enriching with vitamin C.

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How biological filter for aquaculture looked like in 1970 (Auburn University – USA)

This inserted picture has been taken from a publication by Auburn University (USA) published on December, 1970. Being an Auburn University Alumni, I decided to share this picture along with the description: “Pond culture with Biological Filters: Water, pumped from a pond where fish are fed, is filtered through gravel covered with living microscopic organisms then returned through a gravity flow system. The photo shows a filter in the background, some of the ponds in services, the water return system in the foreground. With this system production of 10,000 pounds of catfish per acre in approximately 6 months has been obtained. Practical applications of the system are now being studied”.

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Development of fish feed industry in Pakistan

Photo credit: Muhammad Hafeez-ur-Rehman (Pakistan),  Description: Muhammad Hafeez-ur-Rehman and Abdel Rahman El Gamal (Founder of the website)

The inserted picture was taken inside a feed mill in Pakistan. Before having commercially produced feed, fish farmers used to formulate feed based on earlier experience or simply on trial bases.

In the present, several feed mills are furnished with extruders. The volume of produced feed could be estimated from the species composition of aquaculture in Pakistan. According to FAO statistics, total aquaculture production in 2016 amounted 156,430 tons; out of which, cyprinids represent 97.7% while tilapia, crustaceans (freshwater and marine water), as well as other freshwater species share the remaining 2.3%.

The ingredients used in fish feed are locally available products with no imports.  The plant-based ingredients include sunflower meal, soybean meal, rice polish, rice bran, and maize gluten while animal-based products include fish meal, bone meal, feather meal (hydrolyzed), and others.  

It worth noting that the cost of fish feed represents an obstacle to fish farming industry in Pakistan especially when compared with the farm-gate prices of produced fish species.

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Intensive tank culture of tilapia in Tanzania (Video)

Video credit: Fadhili Ruzika (Tanzania)  – Review: Abdel Rahman El Gamal (Founder of the video channel)

The vigorous feeding of tilapia as shown in the present video indicates the high density of stocked fish in the tank. The video also shows that the feed provided has been -most likely- mixed on the farm. Regarding the market size, the size of tilapia as shown in the clip has not reached the market size yet and hence, more time will be required before harvesting.

Tanzanian aquaculture with its current 5000 tons in 2016 is composed mainly of tilapia contributed with 3800 tons in 2016 representing more than 75% of total aquaculture in Tanzania. The imports of tilapia whether in the form of frozen fish or chilled fillets indicates decent demand on tilapia in Tanzania.

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Small-scale aquaculture in Otjozondjupa Region (Namibia)

Photo credit: Kaulo Salushando (Namibia) – Review: Abdel Rahman El Gamal (Founder of the website)

The inserted pictures show the harvest of a small fish farm located in Otjozondjupa Region (Namibia). Based on official publications, the fish farmers in the Otjozondjupa region who are mostly private individuals who are culturing fish for subsistence or recreational purposes.

According to FAO statistics, fish production from aquaculture in Namibia -excluding aquatic plants- amounted 515, 505, and 461 tons in 2014, 2015, and 2016 respectively.

While farmed oyster dominates the total aquaculture production (86.3% in 2016), tilapia is the leading freshwater species with a production of 65, 50, and 46 tons during the period from 2014 to 2016 respectively representing 12.6, 9.9, and 10% of total aquaculture during the mentioned period. Minor quantities are produced whether in freshwater or marine water including African catfish, mussel and abalones. According to the National Aquaculture Master Plan for Namibia, the analysis and challenges for developing the potential of freshwater aquaculture was completed leading to the establishment of a series of Inland Aquaculture Centers and farms in some regions in Namibia including Otjozondjupa region.

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Reproduction and grow-out of sea cucumber in South Korea (Video)

Video credit: Hisham El Gazzar (Egypt) – Description: Abdel Rahman El Gamal (Founder of the website)

The inserted video was filmed in a sea cucumber hatchery in South Korea. The leading farmed species is (Apostichopus japonicus)known as Dolgi Haesam. Also, the orange-footed seacucumber (Cucumaria frondosa) has been tried. The hatchery-produced seed are either released in natural waters in stock enhancement programs or grown in farming facilities.

Typically, the broodstock are collected from the wild about 60 days before the spawning season and then placed into conditioning tanks at ambient seawater temperatures and then increasing water temperature by one degree °C/day until reaching 15-18 °C, by then, animals are ready to spawn. During that period, sea cucumber potential spawners are fed a commercial diet which mainly consists of powdered algae such as Spirulina spp. or Dunaliela spp. Feeding stops a day before the spawning that is induced by a thermal shock through an immediate exposure of the animals to warmer water of about 3 to 5°C higher.

Once eggs are laid and fertilized, the fertilized eggs are scooped using nets with appropriate mesh sizes depending on the species, and transferred to culture rectangular tanks with around 5 x 3 meters and about one-meter depth. According to published reports, the above-mentioned tank holds up to a million larvae. The newly hatched larvae are fed a special diet of microalgae according to their age. After approximately seven to eight days, the free-swimming larvae are close to the settlement stage and hence settling plates made from clear corrugated PVC sheets are placed in the larvae rearing tanks. Upon settlement, different feed is provided to the new juveniles consisting of a mixture of mud or bentonite, yeast, and powdered algae. The sea cucumber juveniles are grown on the settling plates for about a year before transferring them to either the wild in stock enhancement programs or to sea cages for grow-out.

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Production of tilapia and fish feed in a farm in Tanzania

Photos’ credit: Debora Amsi (Tanzania)Description: Debora Amsi and Abdel Rahman El Gamal (Founder of the website)

The inserted photos are taken in a fish farm located in Dar es Salam – Pugu Kinyamweei (Tanzania) The farm was established in 2013. The farm has enough numbers of nursery and grow-out ponds. In addition to fingerlings and table fish production, fish feed is also produced (e.g. floating pellets with 30% protein). Regarding to supporting the society, the farm provides training on aquaculture.

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Cage culture of tilapia in Brazil – Video

Video credit: Elsadig Arbab (Sudan) – Description: Elsadig Arbab and Abdel Rahman El Gamal (Founder of the video channel)

The inserted post (video) shows a visit to a cage farm of tilapia in Brazil. The visit was accomplished by high level delegates from Sudan and took place during 2014.

The cage units shown belong to a private enterprise located in a small Amazonian river in Toledo (Sao Jose). The operation is a complete one including units for the production of fingerlings, feed mills, and quality control units that process the harvested tilapia from the floating cages. The enterprise manages 1200 cages.

Cages are square in shape with 3 x 3 meters and 2.5 m depth. The strain stocked in the cages are all-male fingerlings Thai Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) as well as GIFT strain (Genetically Improved Farmed Tilapia). All-male fingerlings have been produced through hormonal treatment.

In order to produce two cycles/year, the average stocked tilapia juvenile is 60 g. Different sizes of floating pellets are used ranging from 1 mm (37% protein) to 5 mm (28% protein)

The production averages 90 kg/m3 of marketable-size fish of 600 g as an average size.

Note: I liked very much the design of the cages especially the simple apparatus that enable 2 persons to move the cage bottom easily

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Artificial reproduction of Koi carp in Vietnam (Video)

Video credit: Mohamed Atta (Egypt) – Review: Abdel Rahman El Gamal (Founder of the video channel)

The inserted video was filmed in a private fish hatchery in Vietnam. The video began with the egg stripping upon the ovulation of two females. One can notice that the egg volume varied among the two females with much more eggs in the second female compared to the first one. The video shows the gentle pressing on the female’s body and eggs stop free flowing, the female was considered a spent and was taken to a recovery pond. The two batches of eggs were mixed and dry-fertilized by the sperm directly stripped from one male. As shown in the video, a bird feather is used for the gentle mixing of eggs with the sperm. Typically, after the water-hardening of eggs, they will be incubated until hatching.

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