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Possible use of termites in fish feed

Photo and briefing credit: John Chiseba Mwamba (Zambia) Review: Abdel Rahman El Gamal (Founder of the website)

Historic use of termites: The long winged reproductive termite is edible and highly sought after as a delicacy. Moreover, wild-caught termites have been used as a bait to attract fish and insectivorous birds. Natives of South East Africa consume queens of termites as a delicious dish.

Nutritional merit of termites: The composite analysis of termites showed a relatively high content of crude protein of about 43 to 45% with an adequate profile of amino acids especially in its high lysine content which is an advantageous bearing in mind that lysine is limited in most plant protein sources. The significant high lipid content of termites (~30%) is also advantageous whenever in energy supply and/or in providing specific fatty acids. The overall nutritional merit of termites supports its use in fish feed in a partial replacement of fish meal that is usually the most expensive component of fish feed.

Present and potential use of termites in fish feed: During swarming, significant termite populations are wasted and could be utilized for fish feed production especially fish were observed to consume live termites when they fall into fish pond.

Termite is used regularly as feed ingredient in fish farms in several Asian countries including Cambodia, Thailand and Nepal.On experimental scale, the use of termite has been tested upon partial replacement of fish meal in the feed of “rambur – Macrotermes subhyalinus”, “mud catfish – Heterobranchus longifilis”, “Freshwater prawn – Macrobrachium rosenbergii), and maybe others. The outcomes of most studies recommended replacement ratios in the feed of tested species without affecting its productive performance.  The main objectives of the mentioned studies were to explore practical means to reduce the feed cost through a partial replacement of fish meal with a cheaper source of protein; termites.

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Permanent link to this article: http://fishconsult.org/?p=15493

Extensive farming of red tilapia in Colombia

Photo credit: Andres Delgado (Colombia) Review: Andres Delgado and Abdel Rahman El Gamal (Founder of the website)

The inserted pictures show the culture of red tilapia in small ponds at Ricaurte which is a town and municipality in the Nariño Department (Colombia). In such small ponds, extensive farming system is typically applied as locally available feed is made of sown forages that are grown around the pond. As shown in the picture, a mesh nets are used to protect the farmed fish against possible predation by birds and/or mammals. In such system, an average size of about 300 g for harvested fish has been achieved after 8 months of culture.

Permanent link to this article: http://fishconsult.org/?p=15488

Super intensive shrimp farm in Phang Nga (Thailand) – Video

Video credit: Vannamei 101 Description: Vannamei 101 and Abdel Rahman El Gamal (Founder of the video channel)

As the video caption tells, the video is affiliated to a super intensive shrimp farm located in Phang Nga, Thailand. The stocking rate of post larvae in the farm is 300 PL/m2.  The shrimp culture in the farm with “High Density Polyethylene” HDPE liners. The target shrimp production is 4.5 kg of shrimp/m2; such high production required highly efficient aeration system as shown in the video.

It may worth noting that through a breeding program carried out in Thailand targeted to improve the growth rate of white leg shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, enabling a significant increase in stocking density and so much higher yields, allowing Thailand to produce nearly 600,000 tons in 2009-2010.

Permanent link to this article: http://fishconsult.org/?p=15483

Behind the pictures: Night training and water quality in fish ponds

One of the inserted pictures goes back to 1999 during the first training course hosted by the WorldFish Center (Abbassa – Egypt) for 14 Egyptian fish farmers while the second picture goes back to 2008 during an international training course held at the center. The purpose of night training was not just to measure the dissolved oxygen in given fish ponds but also to relate that to phytoplankton density in the ponds and compare the night readings to earlier and subsequent ones.

Regardless the cold weather as the pictures indicated, the participants in training courses usually appreciated such component in the training. Of course, we were keen to serve some hot drinks after such session. Whenever possible, I was keen to share this unique type of training with my colleagues and course participants.

Permanent link to this article: http://fishconsult.org/?p=15480

Marine life in Kuredu Island (Maldives)

Photos’ credit: Leonel Antonio Zelaya Cerezo (Guatemala) Review: Abdel Rahman El Gamal (Founder of the website)

The inserted picture shows Fish population surveys in Kuredu island (Maldives).

Kuredu which is located 150 kilometers from Male, the capital is considered the most popular resort island in Maldives. The reefs fringing the island are easily accessible to snorkelers and filled with a diverse range of fish and coral.

Depending on reef zones and water depth, the marine life may slightly changes. In the southern reef, damsel fish, triggerfish, parrotfish and small octopuses, sea turtles, eagle ray and small sharks can be spotted. The marine life in the northern reef is dominated by stingray, eagle ray, sea turtles (green sea turtles, hawksbill), and blacktip reef sharks. In general, the biodiversity in Maldives enjoys a variety of species of demersal and epipelagic fish including sharks, marine turtles, whales, dolphins, corals, crabs, shrimps, mangroves and others. Some marine protected species occur in Maldives including Napolean wrasse, black coral, giant clam, whale shark, and manta ray.

Permanent link to this article: http://fishconsult.org/?p=15475

Small-scale aquaculture training course – Africa (Egypt – EICA, 2020)

The inserted photo was taken on March 01, during the first technical day of the “Small-scale aquaculture” training course. This 12-day course is organized by the Egyptian International Centre for Agriculture (EICA). The course hosts 25 participants from 21 African countries.

My contribution to this course includes two lectures and then supervising group activities on the promotion of small-scale aquaculture in home countries. There is a general discussion session scheduled on March 11; a day before graduation. A major component of this course is field visits to fish farms, fish hatcheries, feed mills, research centers. It is always a pleasure to contribute to the capacity building for motivated personnel as in this wonderful group.

In addition to the course participants, the photo shows Dr. Abdel Rahman El Gamal, Mrs. Sohair and Mrs. Nagwa the course organizers. The course participants are: Antonio Nsanda Onde (Angola), Bere Frederic And Nassa Guewendpoulde Bernard (Burkina Faso), Bisabwa Simon (Burundi), Mananga Luzembo Fabrice And Nguangu Daniel (D.R.Congo), Kasim Houssein Ahmed (Djibouti), Jesus Edjang Owono Nchama (Equatorial Guinea), Thembinkosi Yandisa Dlamini (Eswatini), Andzang Martial (Gabon), Marcelino Vaz (Guinea Bissau), Camara Ramatoulaye (Guinea), Ezekiel Kennedy (Liberia), Rabarisoloaritefy Zoniavotra (Madagascar), Shaibu Imran Kananji (Malawi), Berthe Adama (Mali), Vqghih El Bechiry (Mauritania), Celina Anibal Malichocho (Mozambique), Issoufou Boubacar (Niger), Abdul Mustapha Akoko (Nigeria), Pierre Diouf (Senegal), Ayanda Sikobi (South Africa), Ibrahim El Safy Mustafa Ali And Marwa Abd El Galil Mukhtar (Sudan)

Permanent link to this article: http://fishconsult.org/?p=15469

Jebel Aulia fish ladder in Sudan

I filmed this video during my visit to Jebel Aulia dam in October 2018. The dam was built in 1937 by the British across the White Nile to avoid the Nile flood. The dam is located 45 km from Khartoum.

The fish ladder shown in the video is located along the eastern side of the dam. Regardless the effectiveness of the fish ladder, typically ladders (passes) are constructed to help Nile fish undergo pronounced migrations up and down the river, probably for purpose of breeding.

Permanent link to this article: http://fishconsult.org/?p=15459

Poisoning freshwater puffers in a fish pond (Egypt) or a reservoir (Sudan)

The puffers which have several common names including blowfish, ballonfish and others   belong to the “Tetraodontidae” family include more than 120 species that occur worldwide. Although most of blow fish species occur in tropical and subtropical ocean waters, some fish species of this group live in brackish and even freshwater such as the ones shown in the inserted pictures. In fact, the single specimen was found in a fish pond in Egypt while the other picture was photographed during my visit to Sudan (Jabal Awliya reservoir).

A key character of these fish is their Poisoning behavior.The incidences of puffer poisoning are usually linked to the consumption of ill-prepared puffer soup and/or raw puffer meat such as in sashimi. Because the levels of toxins vary from a specimen to another and from a season to season as well as from a location to another, the effects that results from the consumption of puffers vary from light-headedness up to death passing by numbness of the lips, dizziness, vomiting, rapid heart rate, decreased blood pressure, and muscle paralysis. It may worth noting that this neurotoxin is found primarily in the liver and ovaries, although smaller amounts and traces exist in the intestines and skin, as well in muscle.

Utilization: Regardless the poisoning risk associated with the consumption of blowfish, this does not deter them from being considered a delicacy and expensive sushi dish in Korea and Japan (bok; sashimi fugu). However, only licensed and trained chefs should be the authorized ones to prepare these dishes. However, for various reasons, the poisoning continues to threat the like of people who are not aware about the whole thing or who could not carry out safe preparation for the fish.

Reference: Abdel Rahman El Gamal, Aquapedia (in Press)

Permanent link to this article: http://fishconsult.org/?p=15457

Création d’une écloserie commerciale Oreochromis niloticus pour soutenir la pisciculture extensive et semi-intensive à Samendeni, Burkina Faso

This project document has been developed by a group of trainees who participated during 2019 in the “Fish Culture Development – Africa training course” which is annually hosted by the Egyptian International Centre for Agriculture (EICA) in partnership with Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA). The proposed location of this project is Burkina Faso. The names and portraits of this project developers appear in subsequent slides.

The project aims to create a commercial hatchery for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) to support extensive and semi-intensive fish farming in Samendeni, Burkina Faso

The project document started with background information highlighting the importance of tilapia seeds for fish farming in the pre-mentioned area in Burkina Faso.

The project document included the essential components of project proposals such as budget, investment, and revenue. The technical component has been supported by the necessary figures and tables. The project feasibility has been based on economics analysis. All activities of the project have been arranged in an activity chart. This project is one of more group projects which have been supervised by Dr. Abdel Rahman El Gamal.

http://fishconsult.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/02/Création-dune-écloserie-commerciale-Oreochromis-niloticus-Burkina-Faso.pdf

Permanent link to this article: http://fishconsult.org/?p=15451

Large-scale tilapia cage culture in Lake Malawi

This project document has been developed by a group of trainees who participated during 2019 in the “Fish Culture Development – Africa training course” which is annually hosted by the Egyptian International Centre for Agriculture (EICA) in partnership with Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA). The proposed location of this project is Lake Malawi. The project document started with background information highlighting the importance of fish in Malawi for nutrition as well as for employment and income generation. The native tilapia, Oreochromis shiranus has been chosen for the project. The budget, investment, and revenue of the project have been covered in the document. The technical components of the project components (hatchery and farm) have been addressed supported with the necessary figures and tables. The project economics have been adequately analyzed. All activities of the project have been arranged in an activity chart. The environmental, social and economic sustainability of the project have been addressed. Finally, there have been specific recommendations regarding the interest rates as well as taxation regarding aquaculture projects. This project is one of more group projects which have been supervised by Dr. Abdel Rahman El Gamal.

http://fishconsult.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/02/Large-scale-tilapia-cage-culture-in-Lake-Malawi.pdf

Permanent link to this article: http://fishconsult.org/?p=15421

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