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Video credit: Manuel Cano Alfaro (Guatemala)
Review: Manuel C. Alfaro and Abdel Rahman El Gamal
As been established long time ago, the development of tilapia aquaculture depends mainly on the use of all-male tilapia fingerlings. The all-male tilapia culture does not only target the higher growth rate of male tilapia compared to females but also eliminates the unwanted reproduction of tilapia that matures at younger age. The use of male hormone 17 alpha-testosterone has been widely used in tilapia hatcheries for producing all-male tilapia fingerlings. However, the use of hormone has raised some environmental concerns as well as health concerns to hatchery operators who could prepare the hormonal treated feed. These concerns led to the banning of hormonal use in sex reversal of tilapia in many countries. The use of super male with YY sex chromosomes in the production of all-male tilapia fingerlings is seen a safe method especially it depends on the mating of super male which has been produced somewhere else with normal females (xx) and all-male offspring (xy) are produced without any hormones. It may worth mentioning that the YY males of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) are usually produced in specialized facilities where female hormone (estradiol) is used in the first phase of the process. However, it is always assumed that in such specialized facilities, the good management practices are enforced and so environmental and health concerns are taken care of.
The hatchery shown in this video is located belongs to the University of San Carlos de Guatemala operated by the “Centro de Estudios Marítimos y Acuicultura” (CEMA). The YY super male of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus used in the hatchery have been produced at Costa Rica. Even though the hatchery production was not published, it seems that 160,000 fingerlings/month is a good estimate. Produced fingerlings are provided to tilapia producers in the Pacific slope of Guatemala.