Aquaculture in Tanzania (Status – Challenges – Outlook)


This introductory lecture was delivered in the opening of the “Aquaculture training workshop” which was conducted during the period 17 to 21 September in Kilimanjaro (Tanzania) and organized by Kilimanjaro Agricultural Training Center (KATC). I tried in this lecture to bring in the information on fishery/aquaculture sector in Tanzania but also to highlight other related sectors such as particular agricultural crops which could be used in fish feed. In order to emphasize the rationality of aquaculture development in Tanzania, the key human nutrition parameters have been addressed such as the daily per capita protein intake and identifying all sources for such intake. The lecture ended by the challenges facing the development of aquaculture in Tanzania. A brief introduction on world and African aquaculture was included in the first part of the lecture. As planned, this lecture served as a platform for subsequent components of this training workshop.

Aquaculture in Tanzania (Status – Challenges – Outlook)






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Cage culture of tilapia in Guatemala

Photo credit: Andria Melissa Ochoa Rodas (Guatemala)

Description: Andria Melissa Ochoa Rodas and Abdel Rahman El Gamal (Founder of the website)

The inserted picture shows a cage farm for tilapia located in freshwater body in Guatemala. The production of tilapia (Oreochromis spp) has constantly increased in tanks and cages. The culture of tilapia in floating cages has been promoted by the fisheries administration.

The contribution of tilapia to total aquaculture was only 3.7% in 2010 with 846 tons increasing to 5500 tons in 2011; 5455 tons in 2012; 5974 tons in 2013; and 9546 tons in 2014 before peaking in 2015 when tilapia produced from aquaculture amounted 13,500 tons representing 61.2% of total aquaculture in Guatemala and hence surpassing the production of marine shrimp for the first year. The year 2016 has witnessed a decline in tilapia production reaching 10,045 tons representing 38.2% of total aquaculture.

About 20% of produced fish is exported to the USA as fillet while the rest is for domestic market. The mean harvest weights range from about 225 to 450 g.

According to the “Fish Site”, about 40 million of tilapia fingerlings are produced in Guatemala. It may worth noting that 20,000 selectively-bred tilapia broodstock resistant to “Streptococcus” have been delivered to a Guatemala enterprise.




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Interesting African children; Amina in Tanzania and Peter in Kenya

During our field visits to fish farms, I could lose the chance talking to African children who were in the premise of the farms. I was impressed by the young personality of both children. Amina and her brother in Tanzania asked me about my name and more questions while Peter in Kenya initiated the fist-bump with me. Thanks Amina and brother and thanks for Peter for your true hospitality.

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Pond raceway system in China

Credit: Marx Perfecto C. Garcia (Philippines)

This technology is observed in FFRC in Wuxi, China. It is used to produce high value species such as sea bass in intensive system. The system is operated with the use of air blowers which will create an airlift for water circulation. This method is good as it carries two functions which are to pump water and aerate water for the fish stocks. The water will then flow into the other end from where the organic waste are collected by a mechanical collector. This component moves back and forth and pumps out the water and sludge into the siltation pond from where the water is filtered for recirculation. An accessory mechanical aerators are also present in the pond to facilitate circulation of water within the pond system.

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Fish Culture Development (regular training course – 2018 – EICA – Egypt)

Because of travels during October, my contribution to this year course has been delayed to today 11 November as I delivered my first lectures. This 10-week Fish Culture Development training course has been annually supported since 1988 by the Egyptian Government as represented in the Egyptian International Center for Agriculture (EICA). As usual, lectures in the course are delivered in English while simultaneous interpretation into French and Spanish takes place. The participants in this course are:

Ariel Martin Belavi (Argentina), Niampa Moussa (Burkina Faso), Armando Romero (El Salvador), Andria Melissa Ochoa Rodas and Leonel Antonio Zelaya Cerezo (Guatemala), Aritra Bera (India), Muhammad Bin Mohd Sabri (Malaysia), Mohammad Sohrab Magsi (Pakistan), Davis Alberto Gonzalez Samaniego (Panama), Hermes Ariel Montiel Benitez (Paraguay), Marx Perfecto C. Garcia (Philippines), Hadia Adam Mamour (Sudan), Ignacio Marcos Quartiani Zubieta (Uruguay), Lam Thi Huyen Tran (Vietnam), and Nathan Chama (Zambia)

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Rainbow trout from grow-out tanks to restaurant tables in San Mateo (Peru)

Photos’ credit: Jhons Huayanay Ostos (Peru)

Review: Jhons Huayanay Ostos and Abdel Rahman El Gamal (Founder of the website)

The inserted photos show the culture of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in Peru. The farm is located in San Mateo,  Huarochiri region, Lima. The river water is the water source for the farm. The minimum and maximum water temperature is 7 and 15 Celsius respectively. The grow-out tanks are circular with a 10-meter diameter and 1.5-meter depth.

The stocking density in this farm is 14 fish/m2 while the production is 10 kg/m2.  During the grow-out, fish are feed on commercial trout feed with 50% protein.

It may be of interest to know that this farm arrange farm visits during which visitors can fish the trout from the farm ponds and then their catch is prepared the way they like in a restaurant that is annexed to the farm.

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Dagaa dominates the dried-fish market in Tanzania – Video

This video was filmed in a village market at Kilimanjaro (Tanzania). As expected, the as a village market, very many items are vegetables, fruits, home utilities, and a lot more. In regard to fish, only dried, salted and smoked fish are displayed.

Dagaa, such small fish whether dried/salted, and or smoked seemed dominated the fish displays in the market which most likely indicating the importance of dagga in the people’s diet especially in rural areas.

The sale of dagaa is by scoop as shown in the video as each size of the containers has its price. Few dagaa displays might have some smoked catfish and tilapia in a way to satisfy the consumer demand. It was very obvious that women control the market of dried fish in village markets.

Dried dagaa is produced by sun-drying which is often done by women. It takes one day or more to complete the sun-drying depending on the weather.

This small fish is the silver cyprinid, (Rastrineobola argentea) that is produced mainly from Lake Victoria. Dagaa fishing in Lake Victoria is done using light attraction during moonless nights where 10-mm mesh nets is the official size.

Unlike other small fish in Lake Victoria, “dagaa” –being a fast swimmer- was able to withstand the predation pressure caused mainly by the introduced Nile perch, (Lates niloticus). That is why “dagaa” is not considered a threatened species by the IUCN.



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Integrated fish-duck farming in Tanzania (Video)

The inserted video was filmed in a fish farm located in Kibisho (Kilimanjaro – Tanzania). Different types of integration are practiced on the farm including aquaculture-agriculture and aquaculture-duck production. The present video shows the fish-duck integration. The farm keeps two local strains of ducks which are reproduced on the farm through an incubator (not shown in the video). We have been told, no ducks have been sold for their meat until now and that is why one can see on the video ducks of different ages do exist. However, we have been told that once the number of ducks meets the requirement of fish ponds, extra ducks will be sold. The facility shows a shelter in which nursing of ducklings and feeding take place. The fish grown in the ponds are either Nile tilapia or African catfish. The present production of the farm is 50 – 60 tons of fish/year.


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The size of feed pellet and the width of fish mouth – Video


The inserted video shows the feeding of tilapia fingerlings. As shown in the video, the size of the floating pellets is too large to be swallowed by the fingerlings that are chasing the feed trying to get a bite after another. In this case, fish will spend unnecessary extra energy during feeding that would otherwise be used for growth. Moreover, higher rates of feed loss are expected through the leaching of pellet remains in the water column. In general, the pellet size is considered optimal at 25% – 50% of the width of fish’s mouth.

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A happy moment in Mwarda fish market (Sudan)


Thanks to friends who captured this happy moment while visiting Mwarda fish market (Sudan) and handling a specimen of elephant-snout fish.  How nice we were able to laugh from the heart.  No matter how our work schedule is tight and life turns busy, we need a moment to relief hearts. Thanks to the kind persons from the market who shared me this exceptional happy moment.



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